2014 was the hottest year since record-keeping began way back in the nineteenth century, according to reports released Friday by NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. According to NASA, the Earth has now warmed roughly 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit since 1880, and most of that increase is the result of greenhouse gases released by humans. Nine of the 10 warmest years on record have occurred since 2000.
Here’s the last (and arguably most interesting) of the five:
via 5 Charts That Explain 2014’s Record-Smashing Heat | Mother Jones
(h/t The Big picture)
Lovely short film on how the reintroduction of wolves into Yellowstone National Park in 1995 changed, well . . . everything. (h/t FB Ali)
The warning comes as choking air is blanketing a quarter of the mainland and scientists say they are already seeing the detrimental effects. In He’s tests, chilli and tomato seeds, which normally take about 20 days to grow into seedlings under artificial light in a laboratory, took more than two months to sprout at a greenhouse farm in Beijing’s Changping district.
Membranes and pollutants sticking to the greenhouse’s surface cut the amount of light available to the plants by half, He said.
Depriving plants of light means photosynthesis – the process by which plants convert light to chemical energy – can barely be sustained.
Most seedlings at the farm were weak or sick. “They will be lucky to live at all. Now almost every farm is caught in a smog panic,” He said, adding that the poor seedling quality would cut agricultural output this year.
And if the smog persisted or intensified, the country’s food supply would face devastating consequences, He warned.
“A large number of representatives of agricultural companies have suddenly showed up at academic meetings on photosynthesis in recent months and sought desperately for solutions,” He said.
“Our overseas colleagues were shocked by the phenomenon because in their countries nothing like this had ever happened.”
Greenhouse farms, which occupy more than four million hectares and supply most of the mainland’s vegetables, would be the first to be hit.
via Agriculture feels the choke as China smog starts to foster disastrous conditions | South China Morning Post.
Many see shale gas as a saviour, the “bridge fuel that can power our economy with less of the carbon pollution that causes climate change” as Obama put it recently.
Examined more closely, its merits are doubtful. An article in “Business Spectator” laid out the two principal downsides.
First, the greenhouse gas emissions
The Environmental Protection Agency has pegged natural gas leakage from production at 1.5 per cent. But the agency tends to rely on industry-provided numbers. A separate study by 15 scientists from institutions including Harvard, NOAA and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab looked at comprehensive atmospheric data and models, and concluded the leakage was at least 3 per cent. At 2.7 per cent or more, natural gas loses any advantage over coal in terms of its greenhouse effect.
That finding is backed up by other, more local studies by NOAA, which found a 4 per cent leakage rate from natural gas production around Denver, a 6-to-12 per cent rate from production in Colorado’s Uintah Basin, and a 17 per cent rate in the Los Angeles basin. Continue reading